1    New and Changed Features

This chapter provides brief descriptions of features that are new to the Tru64 UNIX operating system in this release or that have changed significantly from previous releases. Tru64 UNIX Version 5.1 is a functional release that includes the following enhancements:

In addition to these features, this release also includes the following specific enhancements:

1.1    Support for the AlphaServer GS Series

This release provides support for the AlphaServer GS series of computers, which includes the AlphaServer GS80, AlphaServer GS160, and AlphaServer GS320 systems. These are highly reliable, highly available, and highly scalable systems that provide unparalleled computing power. The AlphaServer GS series of computers enables you to quickly scale from 1 to 32 CPUs with up to 256 gigabytes of memory and to run multiple instances of different operating systems.

1.2    Memory Troller

This release introduces memory trolling. Memory trolling is a process of reading the system's memory to proactively discover and handle memory errors. Currently, memory trolling is supported only on AlphaServer GS80, GS160, and GS320 systems.

A new tuning attribute ( vm_troll_percent) enables you to manage memory trolling. This parameter is part of the kernel's vm subsystem. For systems that support memory trolling, use the vm_troll_percent attribute to enable, disable, and tune the trolling rate. You can change the rate at any time.

For more information on the memory trolling feature, see the System Administration guide.

1.3    Compaq Capacity on Demand

This release supports Compaq Capacity on Demand (CCoD) on GS140E, GS160, and GS320 systems. CCoD allows you to enable additional processing capacity, subject to hardware availability.

CCoD kits are available on a CD-ROM and from the World Wide Web. You can find additional information and download the CCoD kit from the following URL:


After you obtain the kit, use the setld command to install the following software subset:

CODBASE400    Capacity On Demand

See the Installation Guide for information on installing optional software. Instructions for configuring and using CCoD are included in the kit.

1.4    Support for TruCluster Server

TruCluster Server Version 5.1 is a separately licensed product that ships on the Associated Products CD-ROM Volume 2. It is a highly integrated synthesis of Tru64 UNIX software, Compaq AlphaServer systems, and storage devices that operate as a single system. A TruCluster Server cluster acts as a single virtual system, even though it is made up of multiple systems. Members of the cluster can share resources, data storage, and clusterwide file systems under a single security and management domain, yet they can boot or shut down independently without disrupting the cluster.

Like the TruCluster Available Server Software and Compaq TruCluster Production Server products available on the Version 4.0 stream of the operating system, TruCluster Server lets you deploy highly available services that can access their disk data from any member in the cluster. Any application that can run on Tru64 UNIX can run as a highly available, single-instance application in a cluster. The application is automatically relocated (failed over) to another cluster member in the event that a required resource, or the current member itself, becomes unavailable.

Like the Compaq TruCluster Production Server Software product, TruCluster Server lets you run components of distributed applications in parallel, providing high availability while taking advantage of cluster-specific synchronization mechanisms and performance optimizations.

TruCluster Server Version 5.1 provides the following features:

See the TruCluster Server Technical Overview for more information on these features.

1.5    Tcl/Tk Version 8.2

This release contains Tcl/Tk Version 8.2 and TclX/TkX Version 8.1. See the tcl(1) reference page for Compaq's support policy. For information on older versions of Tcl/Tk, see Section 2.2.21.

1.6    Internet Protocol Version 6 Support

This release contains Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) support for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and raw sockets, and IPv6 support for commands and utilities. This support is for those customers who want to start using IPv6 today and for those who want to test or experiment with IPv6. This support is in addition to the IPv4 support already in Tru64 UNIX.

The operating system supports the following:

See the Network Administration manual for IPv6 configuration instructions.

See the Software Product Description (SPD) for a list of supported Internet specifications, RFCs (Request for Comments), and Internet drafts (works in progress).

See the Network Programmer's Guide for information on using AF_INET6 sockets.

Not all components of the operating system support IPv6. See the Technical Overviewfor a list of commands that support IPv6. For layered products and third-party software, contact your vendor.

1.7    Extended System V Functionality

System V functionality in the operating system has been extended in some existing commands and library functions to include System V formatted output, and support for System V options. A number of new utilities are also supported, most notably the sar and truss utilities.

The Extended System V Functionality kits are provided in the following subsets on the Associated Products CD-ROM (APCD):

If you choose to install the Extended System V Functionality kit, it is installed into the /usr/opt/svr4 directory. The Extended System V Functionality kit will not conflict with the operating system software or documentation. For installation and configuration details, see the ESVF_README.txt file in the /usr/opt/svr4/doc directory.

1.8    Device Drivers Must Be Recompiled

The following changes were made to the buffer structure (struct buf) in sys/buf.h that require device driver developers to recompile their code under this release:

1.9    Additional Changes

The following sections provide brief descriptions of additional changes included in this version of the Tru64 UNIX operating system software.

1.9.1    Change to pax, tar, and cpio for Standards Compliance

A minor change has been made to the pax command to maximize conformance with Version 2 of the X/Open System Interface. This change affects the pax, tar, and cpio commands.

When a user other than the root user extracts a file from an archive on top of a preexisting file of the same name, the existing file is no longer removed first.

1.9.2    Large Shared Memory Segments Support

This release supports System V shared memory segments greater than 2 GB as defined by the UNIX 98 branding standard. To make use of the full 64-bit shared-memory segment size, you must recompile applications with _XOPEN_SOURCE defined to be greater than or equal to 500. For example:

system> cc -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 ...

Without the -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 flag the system defaults to the UNIX 95 branding standard, which supports only 2 GB of shared memory segments.

1.9.3    Event Management

This release provides many enhancements to the Event Manager (EVM) subsystem, including the following:

1.9.4    New Division of Privileges Capabilities

The SysMan Division of Privileges (DOP) facility allows a system administrator to authorize specific users or groups to perform system management operations (actions) that require root privilege.

Management actions are associated with specific privileges and the Configure Division of Privileges (DOP) application is used to grant these specific privileges to users and groups. DOP is discussed in more detail in the Security guide and the dop(8) reference page.

The Manage DOP Actions is a new facility. This application allows the administrator to define new actions and their required privileges.

You can start the Configure Division of Privileges (DOP) and Manage DOP Actions from the Security branch of the SysMan Menu or from the command line, as follows:

# sysman dopconfig
# sysman dopaction

Compaq recommends that you do not use the Manage DOP Actions facility to modify the DOP actions that are supplied with the operating system. If you do, the system management facilities integral to the Tru64 UNIX system might fail.

1.9.5    Bootable Tape Supports LSM

In this release, the bootable tape utility (btcreate) has been upgraded to support the Logical Storage Manager (LSM). For more information, see the btcreate(8) reference page and the System Administration guide.

1.9.6    FDDI Device Driver

The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) driver has been modified to improve scalability and overall system performance. This modification might change performance characteristics for certain benchmark tests, depending on how the driver is used. You can restore previous driver behavior by modifying the FDDI minimal_isr system attribute. See the sys_attrs_fta(5) reference page for more information.

1.9.7    DNS/BIND Enhancements

The Domain Name System (DNS) has been upgraded to Version 8.2.2 of the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) service in this release.

This version of BIND includes support for dynamic updates of the master database, as well as support for private key encryption of dynamic updates and zone transfers. For more information about these new features, see the Network Administration guide.

1.9.8    NTP Enhancements

The Network Time Protocol has been upgraded to Version 4.98a in this release of the operating system. New features in this version of NTP include:

For more information about these features, see the ntp.conf(4) reference page.

1.9.9    IMAP Server Enhancements

The IMAP mail server has been updated from Version 1.5.19 to Version 1.6.19 in this release of the operating system.

Starting with this release, the IMAP files in the quota and user configuration directories, and optionally, the users' mail directories in the IMAP mail spool, are stored in subdirectories a through z, sorted by the first character of each user name. This arrangement reduces the number of entries in a given directory and consequently increases performance and scalability.

If you are running the IMAP server from a previous version of the operating system, and you are upgrading to Tru64 UNIX Version 5.1, you must convert your quota and user configuration directories to the new format. Optionally, you can sort your IMAP mail spool in the same manner by enabling the hashimapspool option in the /etc/imapd.conf file before converting your configuration directories. See imapd.conf(4) for more information.

To convert your directories to the new format, use the dohash utility. See dohash(8) for more information.

1.9.10    Account Management Enhancements

This section provides information on enhancements to the Account Management applications.    Filtering Added to the SysMan Account Management Task

The Account Management task on the SysMan Menu has been enhanced to support filtering of user accounts. Now you can filter down to the accounts you are interested in viewing. For example, you can apply filters to show all accounts that match a pattern and to show all accounts in a specific group.    Enhanced Security Features

Previously you could not use Account Management tools (dxaccounts and userdel) to delete the user accounts under the enhanced security environment. Now you can delete user accounts, as well as retire them. When you delete an account, it is removed from the /etc/passwd file and from the enhanced security authcap (protected password) database.

In previous releases the Account Management tools (dxaccounts, useradd, and usermod) under the enhanced security environment supported only administratively locked accounts. Disabled accounts were not supported. Accounts could be disabled due to password expiration, number of login failures, and other causes when running under the enhanced security. There was no straightforward way to clear disabling conditions to enable login.

Now, on systems running enhanced security, the dxaccounts application displays a list of users with the disabled status, as well as the locked status. Additionally, an Enable menu item allows you to set the grace period to clear any disabling conditions.

1.9.11    File System Enhancements

This section provides information on enhancements to Tru64 UNIX file systems.    AutoFS

This release provides a new feature, AutoFS, that you can use to automatically and transparently mount and unmount NFS file systems on an as-needed basis.

AutoFS is similar to the existing Automount feature; however, it provides increased efficiency and higher availability, with certain restrictions. AutoFS is also supported by the TruCluster Server Software.

For more information about AutoFS, see Section 5.4.1of this manual, the Network Administration guide, and the autofsd(8) and autofsmount(8) reference pages.    Digital Versatile Disk File System

This release supports the Digital Versatile Disk File System (DVDFS), which enables the reading of disks formatted in the Universal Disk Format (UDF). These interfaces conform to the ISO/ITEC 13346:1995 and ISO 9660:1988 standards.

See the dvdfs(4) reference page for more information.    Changes to the mount and statfs System Calls

To support additional mount flags, the mount structure's m_flag field has changed from 32 bits to 64 bits. Applications that pass a 32-bit flag field using the mount system call will continue to work.

Additionally, the statfs structure, which is used to query a file system's mount flags, now uses one of its previously spare fields to report this information. The new field is the f_flags2 field. The f_flags field will continue to report back 32-bits of data; the f_flags2 field will report back the complete 64-bits of data.

Currently, attempts to set invalid mount flags via the mount system call are silently ignored.    UFS File System Extension

You can now extend UFS file systems to a larger size using the extendfs command for unmounted file systems and the mount command for mounted file systems. The file system extension functionality provided by these commands allows for easier file system growth than traditional tools, such as dump, newfs, and restore.

You can also extend UFS file systems that exist on Logical Storage Manager (LSM) volumes by first extending the LSM volume.

See the System Administration guide and the extendfs(8) and mount(8) reference pages for information.

1.9.12    Development Environment Enhancments

This section provides information on enhancements to the developement environment.    Enhancements to the acreate Function

The MEM_NONCONCURRENT flag has been added to the list of supported flags for the acreate() function. This flag can provide a performance enhancement for multithreaded applications that are willing to guarantee that no two threads will access the arena at the same time, for any purpose. See the acreate(3) reference page for more information.

The new nacreate() function is available for those applications that want to specify NUMA memory allocation attributes to be associated with an arena. See the nacreate(3) reference page for more information.    Spike Post-Link Optimizer

Spike is a new tool for performing code optimization after linking. It is a replacement for om and does similar optimizations. Because it can operate on an entire program, Spike can do optimizations that cannot be done by the compiler.

Some of the optimizations that Spike performs are code layout, deleting unreachable code, and optimization of address computations. Spike is most effective when it uses profile information to guide optimization.

Spike can process binaries linked on Tru64 UNIX Version 4.0 or later systems. Binaries that are linked on Version 5.1 or later systems contain information that allows Spike to do additional optimization.

Like om, Spike can be invoked as part of the compilation process, by specifying the -spike option with the cc (or the cxx, f77, or f90 command, if the associated compiler is installed). In addition, Spike can be invoked on the command line by applying the spike command to a binary file after compilation. For more information, see the spike(1) reference page.    Changes in the Assembly Process of the as and cc Commands

The assembler component that is invoked with the as and cc commands has been reimplemented in this release. No changes to the user environment or source code are necessary due to this change.

The following switches have been added to the as and cc commands:

By default, both the as and cc commands use the new assembly process. You can invoke the old process by using the -oldas switch. If multiple switches are presented to the assembly process, both the as and cc commands use the last switch seen.

1.9.13    Advanced Printing Software Version 1.1

This release contains an updated version of the Advanced Printing Software, which includes the following enhancements:

See the online Technical Updates for TruCluster and LDAP configuration information and for a list of the newly supported printers.

1.9.14    Performance Manager

The Performance Manager agent (pmgrd) now ships on the base operating system as an SNMP subagent. The agent installs with the snmpd daemon and is started automatically with the SNMP agent.

1.9.15    New Options for Collect

You can configure the Collect utility to suspend and resume based on the amount of available free disk space. The Collect utility monitors free disk space with the -M option. The Collect utility suspends writing to disk when free disk space falls below a declared threshold and resumes when free space rises above the threshold.

You can also configure the Collect utility to flush buffered data to disk at a user-defined interval, using the -W option to set the number of write instances and the time interval.

For more information, see the collect(8) reference page.

1.9.16    Perl Upgraded to Version 5.005

Perl has been upgraded from Version 5.00404 to Version 5.00503. The Perl software consists of the minimum runtime subset (BINPERL510) and the runtime subset (OSFPERL510).

1.9.17    Windows System Software Enhancements

The following notes provide information on enhancements to the windows system software.    Change to X Server Behavior for Graphic Drivers

The X server has been modified to correctly handle the -onlyScreen and -disableScreen command line options. The -onlyScreen option now works with a screen other than 0 and the -disableScreen option now allows other screens to work when screen 0 is disabled. For more information on these command line options, see the Xdec(1X) reference page.    CDE and Motif Applications Can Run in UTF-8 Locales

CDE and Motif applications can run in UTF-8 locales, as well as traditional UNIX locales. In this release, UTF-8 locales have been added for Chinese, Japanese and Korean. See the l10n_intro(5) for a list of the UTF-8 locales available for other languages.

A restriction remains in effect for the dxterm application, which does not support UTF-8 locales for any language.

For existing CDE and Motif applications, the operating system supports UTF-8 locales through codeset conversion. That is, localization data files that already exist for the application in another locale (for example, a Latin-1 locale) are converted to UTF-8 when the user runs the application. Programmers creating new CDE and Motif applications can choose to use the codeset conversion strategy to support UTF-8. Alternatively, they can support UTF-8 directly by creating the following directories with corresponding localization data files:    Improved Size 2 Terminal Font

This release includes an improved CDE Size 2 terminal font. If you use Font Size 2 as your default font size on a CDE-based workstation, you might notice a change in the fixed-width font.

The old font, 100dpi/lutRS08.pcf.Z, was not hand-tuned and is characterized by poorly formed characters and unintelligible diacritical marks (accents). The new font, 75dpi/lutRS12.pcf.Z, is one pixel taller per line and has the same width as the older font. Even though the new font was designed for 75dpi use, it is more regular and readable at all monitor resolutions because it was hand-tuned for use on display terminals.

Additionally, the 75dpi/lutRS12.pcf.Z font was improved for this release. Previously, the plus sign (+), hyphen (-), equal sign (=), underscore (_), division sign (÷), and plus-minus (±) characters ran together when placed next to one another. For this release, those characters have been modified so as to not run together.

Both the old and new fonts are present in previous and current releases. Both fonts are from the Lucida Typewriter family, which is a monospaced font. The old size 2 font (100/lutRS08.pcf) is 11 pixels tall, whereas the new size 2 font (75/lutRS12.pcf) is 12 pixels tall. Neither of these fonts is restricted to use with 75dpi or 100dpi monitors. They can be used with displays of any resolution.

If you prefer the older font and want to restore that behavior, save and restore a copy of the /usr/dt/config/xfonts/C/fonts.alias file from any Version 4.0 release. This file associates logically named CDE fonts with actual font files. After you restore the older version of this file, you must log out and log back in using the CDE Session Manager Dialog to restore the old font behavior.    Motif Version 2.1

Motif Version 2.1 is included on the Associated Products CD-ROM as an Advanced Developer's Kit (ADK). The new features available with Motif Version 2.1 include: thread-safe libraries, widget printing support, and internationalization enhancements. New widgets have also been added.

This version does not contain any of the Compaq enhancements that are present in the default Motif Version 1.2. This is particularly true in the area of internationalization enhancements and input method server support. Therefore, the two versions of Motif are not fully compatible with each other. Motif Version 2.1 is intended to coexist with Motif Version 1.2.

See the README file for more information.

1.9.18    GNU M4 Version 1.4

This release includes GNU M4 Version 1.4. You can invoke the GNU M4 preprocessor by using the /usr/opt/alt/usr/bin/m4 command.

1.9.19    Netscape Communicator

This release of Tru64 UNIX contains Netscape Communicator Version 4.72. For information on using Netscape Communicator to display the online documentation, see the Installation Guide. To obtain the latest fixes to the Netscape Communicator problems described in Chapter 5 of these release notes, it is recommended that you download and install the latest version available of Netscape Communicator for Tru64 UNIX from the Netscape Netcenter's Download World Wide Web site at the following URL:


For more information on Netscape see Section 5.1.5.